Jumat, 05 Juni 2009

Metallica is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California, formed in 1981. Founded when drummer Lars Ulrich posted an advertisement in a local newspaper, Metallica's line-up has primarily consisted of Ulrich, rhythm guitarist and vocalist James Hetfield, and lead guitarist Kirk Hammett, while going through a number of bassists. Currently, the spot is held by Robert Trujillo.

Metallica's early releases included fast tempos, instrumentals, and aggressive musicianship that placed them as one of the "big four" of the thrash metal subgenre alongside Slayer, Megadeth, and Anthrax.[1] The band earned a growing fan base in the underground music community and critical acclaim, with the 1986 release Master of Puppets described as one of the most influential and "heavy" thrash metal albums. The band achieved substantial commercial success with Metallica (1991), which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. With this release the band expanded its musical direction resulting in an album that appealed to a more mainstream audience.

In 2000, Metallica was among several artists who filed a lawsuit against Napster for sharing the band's copyright-protected material for free without the band members' consent.[2] A settlement was reached, and Napster became a pay-to-use service. Despite reaching number one on the Billboard 200, the release of St. Anger alienated many fans with the exclusion of guitar solos and the "steel-sounding" snare drum. A film titled Some Kind of Monster documented the recording process of St. Anger.

Metallica has released nine studio albums, two live albums, two EPs, twenty-four music videos, and forty-five singles. The band has won nine Grammy Awards, and has had five consecutive albums debut at number one on the Billboard 200, making Metallica the only band ever to do so.[3] The band's 1991 album, Metallica, has sold over 15 million copies in the United States, and 22 million copies worldwide, which makes it the 25th-highest-selling album in the country.[4] The band has sold an estimated 100 million records worldwide as of the release of their latest album, Death Magnetic. As of September 2008, Metallica is the fourth highest-selling music artist since the SoundScan era began tracking sales on May 25, 1991, selling a total of 51,136,000 albums in the United States alone.[5]

Happiness is a state of mind or feeling such as contentment, satisfaction, pleasure, or joy.[1] A variety of philosophical, religious, psychological and biological approaches have been taken to defining happiness and identifying its sources.

Philosophers and religious thinkers have often defined happiness in terms of living a good life, or flourishing, rather than simply as an emotion. Happiness in this older sense was used to translate the Greek Eudaimonia, and is still used in virtue ethics. In everyday speech today, however, terms such as well-being or quality of life are usually used to signify the classical meaning, and happiness usually refers[citation needed] to the felt experience or experiences that philosophers historically called pleasure.

While direct measurement of happiness presents challenges, tools such as The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire have been developed by researchers. Positive psychology researchers use theoretical models that include describing happiness as consisting of positive emotions and positive activities, or that describe three kinds of happiness: pleasure, engagement, and meaning.

Research has identified a number of attributes that correlate with happiness. These include relationships and social interaction, parenthood, marital status, religious involvement, age, income (but mainly up to the point where survival needs are met), and proximity to other happy people. Happiness economics suggests that measures of public happiness should be used to supplement more traditional economic

Kamis, 04 Juni 2009

The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past of the current moment (in an absolute tense system), or prior to some other event, whether that is past, present, or future (in a relative tense system).

In English, there are two distinct types of past tense:
Preterite (or simple past)
Present perfect (see perfect aspect)

Each of these may also be found in the progressive (continuous) aspect.
Simple past is formed for regular verbs by adding –ed to the root of a word. Example: He walked to the store. A negation is produced by adding did not and the verb in its infinitive form. Example: He did not walk to the store. Question sentences are started with did as in Did he walk to the store?

Simple past is used for describing acts that have already been concluded and whose exact time of occurrence is known. Furthermore, simple past is used for retelling successive events. That is why it is commonly used in storytelling.

Past progressive is formed by using the adequate form of to be and the verb’s present participle: He was going to church. By inserting not before the main verb a negation is achieved. Example: He was not going to church. A question is formed by prefixing the adequate form of to be as in Was he going?.

Past progressive is used for describing events that were in the process of occurring when a new event happened. The already occurring event is presented in past progressive, the new one in simple past. Example: We were sitting in the garden when the thunderstorm started. Use is similar to other languages' imperfect tense.

Present perfect simple is formed by combining have/has with the main verb’s past participle form: I have arrived. A negation is produced by inserting not after have/has: I have not arrived. Questions in present perfect are formulated by starting a sentence with have/has: Has she arrived?

Present perfect simple is used for describing a past action’s effect on the present: He has arrived. Now he is here. This holds true for events that have just been concluded as well as for events that have not yet occurred.

Present perfect progressive is formed by prefixing have/has before the grammatical particle been and the verb’s present participle form: We have been waiting. A negation is expressed by including not between have/has and been: They have not been eating. As with present perfect simple, for forming a question, have/has is put at the beginning of a sentence: Have they been eating?

Present perfect progressive is used for describing an event that has been going on until the present and may be continued in the future. It also puts emphasis on how an event has occurred. Very often since and for mark the use of present perfect progressive: I have been waiting for five hours / I have been waiting since three o’clock.

Furthermore, there is another version of past tense possible: past perfect, similar to other languages' pluperfect tense.

Past perfect simple is formed by combining the simple past form of to have with the past participle form of the main verb: We had shouted. A negation is achieved by including not after had: You had not spoken. Questions in past perfect always start with had: Had he laughed?

Past perfect simple is used for describing secluded events that have occurred before something else followed. The event that is closer to the present is given in simple past tense: After we had visited our relatives in New York, we flew back to Toronto.

Past perfect progressive is formed by had, the grammatical particle been and the present participle of the main verb: You had been waiting. For negation, not is included before been: I had not been waiting. A question sentence is formed by starting with had: Had she been waiting?

If emphasis is put on the duration of a concluded action of the past, since and for are signal words for past perfect progressive: We had been waiting at the airport since the 9 P.M. flight. / They had been waiting for three hours now.

Rabu, 03 Juni 2009

The present tense is the tense (that is, the form of the verb) that may be used to express:

  • action at the present
  • a state of being;
  • an occurrence in the (very) near future; or
  • an action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present.

There are two common types of present tenses to be found in most Indo-European languages: the present indicative (i.e., the combination of present tense and indicative mood) and the present subjunctive (i.e., the combination of present tense and subjunctive mood).


English, like other Germanic languages, has two tenses, past and non-past. These tenses have several aspects. The present tense aspects comprise:

  • present simple, which is used to describe both habits and or routines (I eat breakfast every morning at 6:30. I go to work every day), and general facts or the truth (The earth revolves around the sun);

We use the present simple for thoughts and feelings. (Ex. I think so, I like it.)

In the present simple, we use the verb without an ending. (Ex. I get the lunch ready at one o'clock, usually.) In the third person singular, (after he, she, it, your friend and etc.,) however, the verb ends in -s or -es. (Ex. It gets busy on the weekends. Sarah catches the early train.)

  • present progressive or present continuous, which is used to describe events happening now, e.g. I am reading this wiki article, and I am thinking about editing it;

The present simple tense is very often used with adverbs of repeated time. Look at these examples (the adverbs are shown in bold): - I always come to school by cycle. - She frequently arrives here before me. - He never forgets to do his homework. - I often catch the late bus home.

When we want to state a fact or ask a question without any time reference, we use the present simple tense. - I live in Frankfurt. - She plays football but she does not play tennis. - For breakfast, he eats rice and drinks cold milk.

Statements about rules of nature and the way the world is are in the present simple tense. - The sun sets in the West. - Most babies learn to speak when they are about two years old. - Water boils at 100° Celsius.

  • present perfect progressive, which is used to describe events or actions that have begun at some point in the past and continue through the present, e.g. I have been reading this article for some time now.

The conjugation of the present indicative tense in regular verbs is as follows:

to walk
I walk
you walk
he/she/it walks
we walk
they walk

Synyster Gates / Brian Haner Jr.
Synyster Gates in Pittsburgh, PA.
Synyster Gates in Pittsburgh, PA.
Background information
Birth name Brian Elwin Haner, Jr.
Also known as Synyster Gates
Born July 7, 1981 (1981-07-07) (age 27)
Huntington Beach, California, United States
Genre(s) Metalcore, heavy metal, hard rock
Occupation(s) Musician, songwriter
Instrument(s) Vocals, guitar, piano
Years active 2000–Present
Label(s) Good Life Recordings, Hopeless, Warner Bros.
Associated acts Avenged Sevenfold, Pinkly Smooth, Good Charlotte, Burn Halo
Notable instrument(s)
Schecter Synyster Custom Electric Guitar

Sena adalah seorang murid SMA Deimon yang lemah dan penakut. Sejak SD, Sena sudah dijadikan budak oleh teman-temannya. Sena juga memiliki teman masa kecil bernama Anezaki Mamori (姉崎まもり, Anezaki Mamori) yang selalu melindunginya jika diganggu oleh anak lain. Walaupun begitu, Sena memiliki kaki yang (amat) cepat karena sering berlari untuk memenuhi perintah anak-anak nakal itu. Lalu suatu saat, ketika Sena berhasil lulus tes masuk, ia dijebak Hiruma untuk mendapatkan alamat rumahnya, juga memasukan banyak brosur klub sepak bola Amerika di rumahnya. Tapi, yang membuat dia manjadi tertarik ingin masuk klub karena dia ingin menjadi syumu (sekretaris klub) tersebut. Tapi, lama-kelamaan dia akhirnya bersemangat menjadi seorang pemain juga. Saat SD, Sena sudah dijadikan budak oleh teman-temannya. Dia selalu diselamatkan oleh Kaitani Riku, teman sekelasnya. Riku mempunyai kaki yang cepat dan dialah yang mengajarkan Sena cara lari cepat agar Sena tidak diganggu lagi oleh teman-temannya. Tapi, Sena malah menggunakan kemampuan larinya supaya lebih cepat saat disuruh-suruh. Sayangnya, Riku hanya 2 minggu sekelas dengan Sena karena orang tuanya pindah kerja. Tapi ia akan bertemu Sena lagi dalam posisi sebagai runnerback Seibu Wild Gunmans. Ia melatih kecepatan kakinya dengan teknik lari yang diajarkan Riku, selama 6 tahun, sehingga kecepatan larinya makin cepat.


  • Devil Bat Ghost: teknik crossover step dengan mengerem tanpa mengurangi kecepatan. Sena mempelajari teknik ini dalam 2000 km Death March di Amerika dengan menendang batu. Efek teknik ini menimbulkan bayangan seperti Sena menjadi 2 yang dapat membingungkan blocker lawan, dan membuatnya salah memperhitungkan timing yang tepat untuk tackle. Belakangan, teknik ini berkembang sebagai dasar dari teknik Sena lainnya.
  • Devil Light Hurricane: disebut juga Devil Bat Tornado. Teknik ini dibuat pada saat pertandingan melawan Kyoshin Poseidon, dengan menggabungkan Devil Bat Ghost dan gerakan Spin. Menimbulkan efek putaran yang membuat teknik tackle dengan 2 tangan(seperti Anchor Grapple milik Kakei) tidak berguna.
  • Devil Bat Dive: Sena melompat ke atas barisan line yang bertabrakan dengan kecepatan penuh. Hiruma hanya memperbolehkan Sena melakukan teknik ini 1 atau 2 kali pada pertandingan karena teknik ini sangat berbahaya.
  • Devil Stungun : menggunakan lengannya, Sena menangkis Trident Tackle Shin dan sukses, walaupun sakitnya bukan main dan Shin melancarkan Trident Tackle lagi dari lengan kirinya. Sena mendapat inspirasi dari pertarungan melawan Agon Kongou. Teknik ini mirip dengan teknik Panther aka. Patrick Spencer dari NASA Aliens, gerakan ini mengorbankan keselamatan bola untuk lolos dari lawan. Teknik ini sedikit menggunakan gerakan jabbing dari tinju. Teknik ini berhasil dipatahkan oleh Marco dari Hakushuu Dinosaurs,yang menggunakan teknik Screw Bite.
  • Devil Ghost Dive : Sena menggunakan Devil Bat Ghost dan tiba-tiba melompat ke atas lawan. Teknik ini dipakai ketika melawan Shin Seijuurou, dan digabungkan dengan Devil Stungun ketika di udara untuk menangkis Trident Tackle Shin. Shin dikalahkan oleh Sena dengan teknik ini. Teknik ini dipakai pada saat play terakhir melawan Ojo White Knights pada turnamen Kanto dan saat melawan Yamato dari Teikoku Alexander di Christmas Bowl. Tetapi Yamato bisa mematahkan teknik ini.
  • Vertical Devil Light Hurricane : Sena memperkecil jarak dengan lawan, lalu mendorong sambil berputar dengan kecepatan cahaya. Dengan menggunakan tubuh lawan sebagai tumpuan, Sena berputar sambil menghindari segala serangan lawan. Dengan jarak yang sangat sempit, membuat lawan dengan teknik defensive attack yang dekat (seperti Screw Bite Marco) tidak bisa merebut bola.
  • Multiple Devil Bat Ghost : Di chapter 287, setelah Yamato menunjukkan Ghost Steps "yang asli" , Sena memutuskan untuk menyempurnakan Devil Bat Ghost-nya dengan crossover step yang liar dan cut step sederhana, dapat membuat 4 "bayangan".
  • Devil 4th Dimension : Teknik lari terkuat Sena, diciptakan pada saat Christmas Bowl melawan Teikoku Alexanders. Ketika berlari dengan kecepatan cahayanya,Sena melakukan backstep yang sangat cepat, tanpa mengubah kecepatannya atau keseimbangannya: melakukan ini ketika lawan sedang menackle menyebabkan tackle lawan meleset dengan sempurna. Menyebabkan Sena lepas dari penjagaan sehingga bisa bergerak dengan leluasa. Pada lawan, teknik ini berefek seperti waktu berjalan mundur(dimensi keempat). Kelemahan teknik ini adalah sesudah Sena melakukan backstep, ada periode ketika Sena mengubah arah larinya dalam sekejap. Sehingga ia berhenti. Pemain bertahan bisa menghentikan langkahnya ketika melihat backstep dan melihat ke arah lari Sena. Yamato memutuskan untuk mematahkan backstep dengan menguncinya dengan teknik Caesar Charge. Mnggunakan seluruh kekuatannya untuk menambah kecepatannya hingga kecepatan cahaya yang melebihi Sena dalam waktu sekejap, yang melebihi kecepatan Sena. Sena akhirnya menutup kelemahan itu dengan menggabungkan lari Devil 4th Dimension dengan Devil Bat Ghost. Membingungkan lawan pada saat sesudah Sena melakukan backstep. Yamato pun ditaklukkan. Sena melakukan Devil Bat Ghost itu dengan lari mundur yang pada akhirnya dinamakan Reverse Devil Bat Ghost.Setelah itu, Yamato menyatakan tidak ada kekuatan atau bakat yang dapat mematahkan teknik ini, itu adalah "kecepatan asli".


  1. Rekor lari 40 yard: 4.2 detik(berkembang menjadi 4.1 detik)
2. Bench Press: 10 kg, 40 kg di vol. 5, dan 45 kg in di. 10
3. Posisi: Running Back
4. Nomor Pemain: 21
5. Kelas 1 SMA